North American Distribution (Non-native, Adventive Species)
Coefficient of Conservatism
Year of earliest detection in Delaware (Non-native, Invasive species)
Global Origin (Non-native Species)
Part used: Bark. Topically used for capillary bleeding, athlete's foot, burns, bruises, nosebleeds, and open sores; as a mouthwash for periodontal disease, and in a sitz bath for episitomy incisions and hemorrhoids. Internally used short-term for diarrhea, dysentery, or gastric bleeding.